Montanhas em um mundo plano: porque a proximidade ainda importa para a localização da atividade econômica

  • Andrés Rodríguez-Pose Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics, Londres
  • Riccardo Crescenzi Dipartimento di Economia, Università degli Studi Roma, Roma
Palavras-chave: progresso tecnológico, nova geografia econômica, vantagem competitiva.

Resumo

Thomas Friedman (2005) argumenta que a expansão do comércio, a internacionalização das firmas, o crescimento acelerado do processo de outsourcing e a possibilidade de conexão em redes a custos cada vez mais baixos estão criando um “mundo plano”: um campo competitivo de condições homogêneas de concorrência no qual os indivíduos têm maior poder e melhores condições de vida. Este artigo desafia essa visão do mundo, argumentando que embora a globalização traga mudanças, oportunidades e desafios, nem todos os territórios têm a mesma capacidade de maximizar os benefícios e as oportunidades e de minimizaras ameaças circundantes. Numerosas forças estão se fundindo no sentido de provocar a emergência de “montanhas” urbanas, onde a riqueza, a atividade econômica e a capacidade de inovação se aglomeram. Estas forças “tectônicas” incluem fatores como a inovação, os transbordamentos, os encadeamentos para trás e para frente nas cadeias produtivas, a dinâmica de especialização versus diversificação, o capital social e comunitário e, por último, mas não menos importante, o “buzz” da cidade. As interações destas forças na proximidade geográfica das grandes áreas urbanas dão forma a uma geografia muito mais complexa da economia mundial e permitem a ascensão de novos players econômicos. Mas esta geografia, ao contrário de ser plana, é repleta de montanhas, em que as grandes aglomerações urbanas representam os picos mais altos. A maioria da população mundial, ao contrário de ter maior poder, permanece mal preparada para encarar estes desafios.

 

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Publicado
2009-11-30
Seção
Artigos